Writing Reports and Research Papers – Electronic Books


A assay cardboard is a section of bookish autograph that employs the author’s or student’s aboriginal assay to abutment the affirmation or apriorism he seeks to prove and which he states at the actual alpha of it, accumulation assay and estimation of his findings.


As a beginner, autograph is neither an simple nor accustomed process, back your apperception acquire to section calm the thoughts, ideas, feelings, and affections that comprise the abstraction for autograph themes, plots, scenes, characters, settings, and the interactions that are illustrated through dialogue. Next you acquire to accumulate and adapt them all, application accoutrement accepted as words, which become aggregate in the ever-expanding locations of sentences, paragraphs, pages, chapters, and, perhaps, feature books. Spelling, grammar, and punctuation acquire to consistently be kept in mind. This requires around-the-clock convenance so that these apparatus can be affiliated by agency of neuropathways in the brain. Finally, they acquire to be channeled through the motor abilities down the arm to the duke and adapted into paper- or computer-captured expressions. This action may crave years and even decades to perfect, until it becomes second-natured to you.


Before you abode your pen on the paper, anticipate about what you ambition to say and again abduction it in the anatomy of words and sentences. After you acquire accounting a cogent allocation of it, whether it be a few paragraphs or pages, you can affair yourself with structure, grammar, and spelling. Announcement is primary. Correction is secondary. There is a aberration amid autograph bigger and activity bigger about what you write. The closing breeds complacency and confidence.

While anybody may strive to address well, it may aboriginal be important point to ascertain what autograph ailing may be. Poor autograph entails one or added of the afterward elements: poor conception, poor argument, abridgement of clarity, unpersuasive and atomic points, poor organization, incoherence, and accepted weakness. Mechanics, as ahead stated, can consistently be adapted or corrected. Writing, whether “good” or “bad,” can appropriately be bargain to two aspects.

1). Agreeable (Creativity)

2). Anatomy (fluency)

Writers can excel in one or the other-that is, they are mutually exclusive.


“Everything is accounting in context,” according to Bill Stott in “Write to the Point” (Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984, p. 23). “It is accounting at a assertive time, for a assertive purpose, and for anyone or some accumulation of people. To address something new and useful, you acquire to apperceive the content, because you acquire to apperceive what is already accepted so you can plan adjoin it in your writing. If you write, you acquire to ask yourself ‘Who am I autograph for? What do they apperceive about the topic? What do they anticipate they know? What can I acquaint them that’s different, but still plausible?’”

Tackling a accountable that has already been accounting about and one which has not and giving the clairvoyant a new bend or angle or absolute something that is not about accepted is challenging. This can be bidding by the afterward aperture lines:

1). No one has yet remarked on…

2). It has not been about accustomed that…

3). One affair few humans apprehend about _____ is that…

These aperture curve will a lot of acceptable activation the clairvoyant into continuing with the section and serve, to a degree, as hooks that allurement him into it. If you are autograph a assay cardboard or thesis, however, you acquire to be able to abutment what you claim. And while what an columnist says acquire to be accurate in album papers, essays, articles, and theses, what may be added important to the clairvoyant is how alpha or absorbing his access is.


Choose, if at all possible, a affair which inspires, angers, touches, amuses, or puzzles you-that is, something you affliction about and in which you are acutely interested. Autograph about it will not alone change your feelings, but your absorption and affection will be reflected by what you abduction and the clairvoyant will apprehend this.

Consider the afterward if you do.

1). Say something that you acquire needs to be said in the ambience in which you are writing.

2). Be aboriginal in either the point(s) you ambition to accomplish or the affirmation acclimated to abutment them. Preferably do both.

3). Look for advantageous things to address about in people, the apple at large, and in yourself. Your own acquaintance can absolutely serve as a advantageous subject.


Secondary to the accountable or affair you acquire for your assay paper, article, or apriorism is its organization. How you accurate it and the adjustment in which your arguments are presented are crucially important.

Like an advance alley the clairvoyant follows on his journey, your alignment entails the aspects, elements, and arguments bare to prove your claim. An aid to this origin-and-destination access is, of course, a brainy or accounting outline, address in apperception that not all anticipate in such agreement and not all appropriately charge it.

Outlines or lists of credibility to be fabricated cannot necessarily be categorized as “writing.” Instead, they facilitate the autograph process. Presenting facts requires analytic transitions and abutment from the antecedent to the alternating one-in added words, point B depends aboriginal aloft point A. There are two assumption agency of abutting paragraphs.

1). Repeat the keyword or words from the antecedent paragraph.

2). Use agreement words, such as “but,” “however, “nevertheless,” and “on the added hand.”


Expository or about alone expository.


Whatever your credibility are, you acquire to next actualize and validate your affirmation through some aspect of absolute proof. Indeed, the afterward aspects should crop these results.

1). Assert – Demonstrate

2). Apriorism – Provide an example.

3). Opinion – Justify

4). Affirmation – Accouter evidence

5). Altercation – Provide proof


While the fabulous and memoir/creative album genres usually crave a angle to grab the clairvoyant so that he will advance his time in them, an article or apriorism requires the blunt account of what is to be discussed and ultimately proven. Autograph this may prove a alarming or alarming task, but in the accurate “progress-not-perfection” philosophy, the biographer charge not “nail it” the aboriginal time. Instead, he may attack his way into the water, application the afterward two methods.

1). Simply accompaniment what the apriorism is, as if you were orally apropos it to someone, acquainted that it is hardly the final draft.

2). Abduction any words you can, even if they do not absolutely chronicle to one another. Again activate the adorning and defining action by bridge out, substituting added vocabulary, and answer and accretion until you are annoyed with the final product.


Although you cannot alone apperceive those who will apprehend your paper, except, of course, your professor, there are several guidelines that will accredit you to ability them, if you accumulate the afterward credibility in mind.

1). They are logical, reasonable people.

2). They action with a ample bulk of accepted sense.

3). They acquire affections and can accordingly be moved, persuaded, surprised, angered, and saddened.

4). They can be abiding to acquire and acquire your credibility of view, provided that you accouter acceptable abutment and affirmation to prove them.

5). They acquire abundant apprenticeship and absorption in the world, life, people, and your topic.


The added abstract your paper, the added academic should be its tone, alienated contractions such as “I’ve” and “didn’t” and appropriately replacing them with “I have” and “did not.”


Because assay affidavit and theses crave affirmation and abutment to prove, quotes from added sources and humans are basic locations of this autograph genre. There are three added times they should be used.

1). If they put words afore the clairvoyant for abutting analysis.

2). If they action that crucial, point-proving evidence.

3). If they say something so well, clearly, and/or succinctly, that the columnist cannot advance aloft them himself.


There are two types of sources.

1). Primary: works, writings, documents, and artifacts created at the time of the recorded accident or person.

2). Secondary: Writings that decipher, analyze, and/or animadversion on these aboriginal materials, or the blazon adopted by scholars.


Transitions are words such as “but,” “however,” “on the added hand,” “in accession to,” and “nevertheless” which change the administration of a accountable or topic. For example, Poverty is the bulk of the problem. However, the basal causes of this aspect acquire to aboriginal be discussed afore a band-aid can be considered.


There is no official or actual branch length. A branch provides attenuate break and signals the alpha of a new topic, direction, or thought.


1). Acquire your topic: Topics may depend aloft assignment, a account from which alone one may be selected, and/or professor-approval. But annihilation enhances a arcane plan added than a affair the biographer is absorbed in, is challenged by, believes in, and is amorous about. These ambit facilitate the arete from arduous “chore” in adjustment to acquire a brand to absorption of his affection or, to a degree, from banal autograph mechanics to affecting expression. The above is a coast. The closing is a drive. On the added hand, limitations of your own ability apropos assertive fields, such as abstruse ones, and antecedent actual will decidedly attenuated the ambit and superior of your work, and may be above your adequacy to address or even understand.

Here are 5 examples of apriorism topics:

a). How do fats affect the animal physique and mind?

b). How abutting has altruism arise to creating bogus intelligence?

c). What are the best means to abate all-around warming?

d). How does a new acceptance law in Russia abbreviate orphans’ opportunities for happiness?

e). Is multitasking a advantageous or annihilative plan method?

2). Assess Antecedent Material: Afore you baddest a affair or thesis, you may aboriginal ambition to actuate the bulk and superior of actual with which you can prove your thesis. If little exists, you are not acceptable to aftermath a satisfactory paper. Sources, causeless to say, cover libraries, arise works, cyberbanking venues, documents, businesses, government agencies, subject-specific works, and experts in the accurate field. Cited sources acquire to be accustomed and listed in the work’s bibliography.

3). Accomplish your Apriorism Statement: Apriorism statements, which can be advised declarations of acceptance you acquire to ultimately abutment and prove through your sources, are the capacity of your paper. They should be declared immediately, such as in the aboriginal band or paragraph. They become the agent from which the arcane adventure begins and their affidavit becomes the destination.

As you research, assay your statement, advance your ideas, and abutment them, the account itself may be aesthetic or modified. You may ascertain that it is either too attenuated or too broad. It should be able and specific.

4). Create an Outline: Like a alley map, an outline enables you to both blueprint and chase your advance from agent or apriorism to destination or conclusion, accouterment direction. It can be either formal, with accomplish arrested by numbers, letters, headings, and subheadings, or informal, which may alone entail a bulleted list, but can cover some or all of the afterward sections.

a). Title page.

b). Abstract-a abrupt arbitrary of the paper.

c). Introduction.

d). Body, subdivided into arguments, credibility of proof, and sources to be cited.

e). Reference or bibliography.

f). Tables, figures, and appendix, if applicable.

5). Adapt your Notes: Addendum anatomy the raw abstracts that will ultimately be adapted into the physique of the work, whose final artefact will be abundantly added if they are placed in the adjustment of argument. If opposing angle abutment your thesis, they should be included. This agenda alignment footfall enables you to analyze, synthesize, sort, and abstract your calm information. All quoted actual acquire to arise in the adjustment in which the arguments are presented.

6). Address your Aboriginal Draft: Afterward your outline and application your organized addendum and sources, you are accessible to address your aboriginal draft.

7). Revise your Thesis: Revision is the action of afterlight and refining, ensuring that facts are correct, that account are acutely expressed, and that the argument logically flows and is consistently supported. In so doing, you may ask yourself the afterward questions.

a). Is my apriorism account abridged and clear?

b). Did I chase my outline? Did I absence anything?

c). Are my arguments presented in a analytic sequence?

d). Are all sources appropriately cited?

e). Acquire I accepted my apriorism with able acknowledging arguments?

f). Did I leave a faculty of achievement for my readers at the end of the paper?

8). Edit your Thesis: Revision is rewriting. Editing is proof-reading and blockage for errors, such as spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Article Sources:

Stott, Bill. “Write to the Point.” Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984.

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Fundamentals of Autobiography Writing


Where the activity to address about your activity in autobiographical anatomy comes from may alter according to the being adventure the project, but its adeptness to record, preserve, reflect, and afford ablaze on it can decidedly enhance it.

“Five hundred twenty-five thousand six hundred minutes. How do you admeasurement a year in the life?” run the words of the aperture song of the Tony accolade acceptable agreeable Rent. What, it may be asked, will you do with your accessible one or, conceivably added appropriately, what accept you done with the antecedent ones?

“The unexamined activity is not annual living,” wrote Greek philosopher Socrates, and the adventures is one arcane adjustment of accomplishing so.

Countless humans accept probed, explored, and wondered what the acceptation of activity is. But the added admired catechism may be: What acceptation can you accord yours? While that adeptness may not be readily available, the analysis of it through the accounting chat may facilitate this process. Then, again, as you almanac the abundant adventures and humans who shaped you, accomplished you, and aided your advance and development as an complete body briefly housed in bound concrete form, you may achieve that there is not necessarily a individual answer.

“Autobiography anecdotal teaches you how to accurate what you’ve experienced, what you feel, what you remember, what you understand, who you are, what you believe, and why, in a way that anyone abroad would appetite reading… ,” wrote Tristine Rainer in her book, “Your Activity as Story: Autograph the New Autobiography” (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1997, p. 8).


As the years and, eventually, the decades unfold, abandoning exact incidents and humans may become added difficult, and acquisition these facts may crave cogent time and accomplishment afore the autobiographer is accessible to abode his pen on the paper. Nevertheless, there are several accoutrement and techniques that can facilitate this process.

1). Records: Records appear in abundant forms-documents, reports, address cards, belletrist and emails, photographs, conversations with accompany and relatives, yearbooks, articles, souvenirs, mementos. All may aid in the anamnesis of activity events.

2). Journals and Diaries: Journals, diaries, and any added agency of attention the contest of your activity can anatomy the foundation of an adventures and can cover reflections, feelings, decisions, and redirections based aloft what was experienced.

3). Schematics: Schematics, such as time curve and ancestors trees, can not alone aid memory, but abode events, experiences, and milestones in archival order. The process, however, may crave cogent anticipation and accomplishment afore an accurate schematic can be produced. Consider the ancestors timberline and timeline examples, subdivided into both years and top and low points, below.

4). Initial Writing: Like case abroad the layers of an onion, autograph enables the autobiographer to progressively delving his memory. The added he does so, the added of it he recovers and uncovers. Accomplishing so with the non-dominant duke offers a astern approach-that is, it provides that hardly shaky, artless activity and can advance to the adumbration of adolescence memories.

5). Aeon Writing: Although hardly complete a complete, life-spanning work, absorption on a specific period, such as the person’s boyish years, may complete the bulk of actual bare to be accessed or remembered at a individual time. Afterwards it has been captured in capricious degrees of accurateness and completeness, it may accredit the columnist to briefly “put it at rest” and move on to addition period.


Like that of the claimed journal, the autobiography’s purpose and admirers are author-determined-that is, he may accept to address alone for himself to bottle and appraise his life, for his accompany and relatives, for approaching generations, for cyberbanking publication, either in accomplished or in part; or for the purposes of publishing a feature book in traditional-print form. For whomever it is written, however, its ultimate bulk may be that of self-definition and not that by others.


Because an adventures should, as abundant as possible, strive to be a complete and accurate annual of a person’s life, and because that annual consistently involves the aggregation of humans he has interacted with, whether they be ancestors members, co-students, friends, or colleagues, its foundation can be advised “truth.” Yet, this may not be accessible in complete agreement due to abounding factors.

1). The author’s disability to bethink and arouse events.

2). His adequacy of breeding events, incidents, and interactions, and cogent them in arcane form.

3). His perspective, angle, and estimation of them.

4). The “truth” that those complex in the annual may bethink or may ambition to remember, based aloft their own perspectives, may differ.

5). The “truth” they may bethink to assure themselves adjoin what is claimed in the argument may differ.

6). The accomplished charge to accept repressed or active assertive abrogating or even alarming events.

7). The time breach amid memories, as afar by age.


Tantamount to autograph an autobiography, of course, is accurate memory. Yet, the beforehand the biographer becomes, the added becomes his adeptness to the aboriginal incidents of his life. Time, distortions, cerebral decline, careful memory, and occlusions all agency into the anamnesis and alive process. How he perceives contest afterwards in activity are absolutely altered from how he was able to do so beforehand in life, abnormally aback he may accept been mentally, emotionally, neurologically, and physiologically less- or abortive at the time. Even accepted cerebral and affecting states will clarify accomplished accident capture.

“You are never yourself in autobiography, because it is not you,” addendum Rainer (ibid, p. 100). “It is not even the acquaintance you had, no bulk how anxiously recorded, because it is absolutely words anecdotal on a page. The added abracadabra you can accomplish the words do, the afterpiece they appear to recreating the aspect of an experience. But even then, it is alone what you bethink of the acquaintance and that is in itself unreliable.”

Further complicating this remember-and-write activity is the actuality that the memory’s bulk becomes absorbed to thoughts, images, and data that may not accept been present during the time of its occurrence, as the apperception seeks to aggrandize and adorn the aboriginal construct. Its adapted appearance and accomplishment appropriately aftereffect from the person’s positon in time and lens through which he angle it, appropriately answer why those in cloister who affirm about a abomination they witnessed may not consistently be as reliable and accurate as their claims suggest.

Remembering is accordingly not consistently the exact science abounding accept that it is, aback the academician accept to reconnect with incidents that occurred sometimes decades earlier. Yet, until the columnist probes them for his autobiography, he may never accept had the charge to do so until now. Depending aloft their types, alignment from blessed to alarming ones, they may be repressed and hidden.

Remembering, additionally, may entail the anamnesis of alloyed memoires, which the apperception has accumulated into single, time-unseparated ones. The author, for instance, may bethink that he acclimated to ride the bus to academy if he was ten-years-old, but may acquisition it absurd to bethink which bench he sat in on anniversary of the occasions, which books he carried, and what the acclimate was like on each. Recall, if you can, what blazon of appointment you did on October 14 if you were 15 and what they served in the academy cafeteria on February 5 if you were 17.

Recalling contest entails the adeptness to run incidents, like blur strips, in your apperception and see and apprehend those with whom you interacted.

Reminiscing entails the adeptness to accomplish feelings, sensations, and affections associated with the complete memories. Decades later, for instance, you may be able to accomplish blissful affections if you apprehend the song that was played at your chief prom. You may ambition to absorb some of them in your own autobiography.


An author’s voice, irrespective of the brand he pens, can be advised his personality demography anatomy on paper-that is, how he approaches a accountable and how he abnormally describes it. It takes appearance in innumerable ways, from acrimony to irony to humor.

It may crave a cogent bulk of time-and appropriately practice-before he can breeding and authorize it. Ironically, it accomplish crave just as abundant time for him to “unlearn” the stuffy, affected appearance he was affected to accept to amuse his English advisers and amuse appellation cardboard autograph guidelines. As an addendum of him, it should breeze naturally, not clashing that of his speech.

“The appellation ‘finding your voice,’ suggests (that) it has been lost,” credibility out Rainer (ibid, p. 124). “And I accept for abounding accomplished humans it has been. They accept abstruse to address the King’s English, but aback they aren’t the king, it’s a affectionate of ventriloquism.”

“Ventriloquism” actuality refers to educationalese or that which is standardly acclimated by journalists, students, and arbiter writers. But, unless your activity was a arbiter example-and few are-then there is no acumen to accurate it as if it were.

Because your adventure entails not alone what you experienced, but how you felt, filtered, and candy those experiences, sometimes through distortions that may accept ironically accurate you, your 18-carat articulation will alone accommodate an additionally acceptable aspect to its authenticity. You, afterwards all, are the “I” in the plan to whom aggregate happened and now you accept the “I” who recounts it from your own alive perspective.

“Hearing your articulation is like seeing yourself in the mirror for the aboriginal time-aah, so that is who I am,” continues Rainer (ibid, p. 139). “Instead of aggravating to change yourself… your goal, already you’ve accustomed your accurate voice, is to see how abundant added like yourself you can become.”

Journal or account writing, the agnate to singing in the battery to convenance a person’s voice, can facilitate anecdotic its autograph analogue over time. Aback both are usually abandoned acts, you can annihilate any affair for what others may anticipate about either, application these venues for abundant “practice runs.”

Although a person’s autograph articulation will articulation aloft his educational level, upbringing, home life, geographic location, indigenous background, and culture, application it added enables the reader, if you accept to allotment your work, to access your apple and acquaintance you and your agency of life. It can, however, alter according to the time aeon covered and whether the biographer chooses to attending aback at himself if he was adolescent or abode himself in that aeon and abduction what he feels and adventures at his earlier, abortive age.

“Most commonly, the articulation in autobiographic narrative… is a aggregate of your adolescent cocky as advocate in the accomplished and your beforehand cocky as narrator in the present,” Rainer aswell advises (ibid, p. 129). “Generally, it is the best best because it creates affecting tension. As protagonist/hero… you accord us exhausted by exhausted your animosity and observations as they were at the time. As narrator… you are the cocky who has active the acquaintance and is now able to anamnesis it as story. As narrator, you aswell announce your affections and reflections as you see things now. You are the present cocky who can bawl for the absent animality of the being you were… “


Any accounting work, whether fabulous or fact, is annihilation added than a still-life painting after those who accommodate the action, dialogue, and feelings, and an about endless amount of others absolutely served as the “players” of your life.

Of these, you, aboriginal and foremost, were the capital one. As both the advocate and the writer, you were the one aggregate happened to, bidding an assay of what you accept is a lot of different about you, or which furnishings you anticipate you had on the lives of others, what roles you played, and how you grew as a aftereffect of it all. Integral to your aberancy were your circumstances, your strengths and weaknesses, and what you abstruse from your experiences. This assay will prove mutually beneficial: it will accredit both you and your readers to apprentice things about your activity that alone this focus can reveal.

As the protagonist, you consistently encountered and were baffled by antagonists, or the armament in both animal and amplified anatomy that against your goals and efforts. During your upbringing, they could accept included your parents, primary caregivers, advance affliction workers, and siblings. During adulthood, they could accept been a spouse. And aural your career, they could accept amid aggressive colleagues and bosses. They did not, however, accept to entail others. Instead, they could accept included endless added aspects, such as handicaps, attached beliefs, and socioeconomic, cultural, and bounded restrictions.

When you acquaint others in your book, abstain absolute use of their names or concrete descriptions.

“The data you acknowledgment should advance the person’s aberancy and temperament, and the furnishings of these attributes on you,” Rainer advises (ibid, p. 163).

Character personality can be added finer illustrated by agency of mannerisms, gestures, unique, frequently acclimated expressions, and accepted behaviors, but if concrete appearance are used, you should complete yourself to alone one or two of them.

The accommodation to address about assertive humans should articulation aloft the active role they played in your life.


Writing an adventures requires the abandoning and researching of the cogent contest of your life, and again adding them into recountable pieces or sections, which can serve as its chapters. Although the adjustment for accomplishing so is author-determined, there are abundant possibilities.

1). Chronologically: This adjustment entails alpha with your bearing and account the cogent contest which followed it.

2). By decades: Some autobiographers accept to bisect their lives, and accordingly capacity or sections, into decades, such as “The 1970′s,” “The 1980′s,” “The 1990′s.”

3). Activity stages: This access entails the subdivisions of infancy, childhood, the boyish years, adulthood, retirement, and similar.

4). Cogent people: An adventures structured by humans focuses on those cogent ones who impacted the writer’s life, whether absolutely or negatively..

5). Milestones: Although milestones are appropriate and author-determined, they can cover degrees, publications, career promotions, citizen relocations, application positions, accomplishments, marriage, and children, a part of others. This adjustment may abode beneath accent on arduous chronology.


Borg, Mary. “Writing Your Life: An Easy-to-Follow Guide to Autograph an Autobiography.” Fort Collins, Colorado: Cottonwood Press, Inc., 1998.

Case, Patricia Ann. “How to Address Your Autobiography: Attention Your Ancestors Heritage.” Santa Barbara, California: Woodbridge Press Publishing Company, 1989.

Rainer, Tristine. “Your Activity as Story: Autograph the New Autobiography”. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1997.

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